Christopher Columbus (Reduction) - Item #779
Each piece is custom finished. Depending on a sculpture’s texture and level of detail, the look of a patina can vary. A slight variation in color from order-to-order is to be expected.
Unless otherwise noted, our reproductions are hand-cast in plaster and reinforced with burlap, fiber strands, and/or metal rods for extra strength.
FLAT WHITE: A unified, matte white finish. This is the optimum patina for cast drawing as it allows focus on form.
WHITE PATINA: A white finish with a light ivory tone added to the top surfaces.
LIGHT ANTIQUE PLASTER: A soft mixture of whites, grays, and yellows to replicate the look of an aged plaster cast.
ANTIQUE PLASTER: A dramatic mixture of grays and yellows to replicate the look of an aged plaster cast.
BRONZE: A rich brown finish with golden highlights to replicate the look of bronze.
STONE: A mixture of lighter tones to resemble natural stone.
DARK STONE: A mixture of darker tones to resemble natural stone.
SANDSTONE: A soft base color with warm highlights to resemble the look of natural sandstone.
TERRA COTTA: A variation of warm tones to resemble terra cotta.
ASSYRIAN STONE (Applies only to item numbers 3, 4, 5, 6 and 738): A two-tone patina augmenting the shallow relief sculpture and its stone texture.
TANAGRA PATINA (Applies only to item numbers 317, 318, 319, 320, 800 and 813): A finish that replicates the colors of the Tanagra figurines as shown in the product images.
15.75 Inches High x 8.5 Inches Wide x 6.5 Inches Deep
Reduction of Item #781. Artist Antonio Canova (1757-1822) desired to add more portrait busts to the chapels of the Pantheon in Rome in the early 19th century. He was in charge of the arts in Rome for several years, and he was allowed by his superiors to move forward with the project. He altered the scope of the busts from well-known Roman artists to historically significant Italians in general, which was met with some opposition. Most of the portrait busts were moved to the Capitoline Museums (Musei Capitolini) in 1820 due to political tensions in Rome. Canova, along with sculptors he commissioned, created the series of busts for the temple. The portrait of Christopher Columbus was sculpted by Raimondo Trentanove (1792-1832) in 1817. A couple of decades later, British artist Joseph Gott (1786-1860) who was working in Rome sculpted a copy of Trentanove's Columbus. This bust is in the collection of the New-York Historical Society. Several sources note that the bust is not representative of Columbus but is rather an idealized, imaginary depiction. Copies of the sculpture can be found as public monuments to Columbus in the United States such as those in Yonkers, New York and Des Moines, Iowa.
Artist: Raimondo Trentanove
Museum: Musei Capitolini, Rome, and New-York Historical Society, New York
Time Period: Neoclassical, 1817
Bouwers, Eveline G. Public Pantheons in Revolutionary Europe: Comparing Cultures of Remembrance, c. 1790-1840. Springer, 2011, pp. 237. Google Books, https://books.google.com/books?id=LXxaCwAAQBAJ&dq=busts+canova+pantheon+pope&source=gbs_navlinks_s.
"Christopher Columbus (1446-1506)." New-York Historical Society Museum & Library, http://www.nyhistory.org/exhibit/christopher-columbus-1446-1506.
The New-York Historical Society. Quarterly Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 4, October 1943, http://digitalcollections.nyhistory.org/islandora/object/islandora%3A24194.
Pasquali, Susanna. "From the Pantheon of Artists to the Pantheon of Illustrious Men: Raphael's Tomb and Its Legacy." Pantheons: Transformations of a Monumental Idea. Edited by Richard Wrigley and Matthew Craske. Routledge, 2017. Google Books, https://books.google.com/books?id=9CUxDwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false.
Phillips, Samuel. "The Portrait Gallery of the Crystal Palace." The Palace and Park: Its Natural History, and Its Portrait Gallery. Crystal Palace Library, and Bradbury and Evans, 1854, pp. 1-238. Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/palaceparkitsnat00unse.
Van der Krogt, Peter. "Busto di Cristoforo Colombo (Bust of Columbus)." Van der Krogt Websites, http://vanderkrogt.net/statues/object.php?webpage=CO&record=itla001.
Various authors. Narrative and Critical History of America: Spanish Explorations and Settlements in America from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth Century. Library of Alexandria, 2016, footnote 302. Google Books, https://books.google.com/books?id=jqtBDAAAQBAJ&dq=capitoline+museums+colombo+columbus&source=gbs_navlinks_s.